AWT

1. AWT介绍

  1. AWT:抽象的窗口工具,包含很多类和接口。

  2. 元素:窗口、按钮、文本框

  3. 存在于java.awt包下。

image-20210807160649808
Image

2. 组件和容器

2.1. Frame

public class Demo1 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {

        // 新建Frame在内存中
        Frame frame = new Frame("Java图形界面窗口");

        // 默认窗口大小为0
        // 设置窗口大小
        frame.setSize(400, 400);

        // 设置背景颜色
        frame.setBackground(Color.WHITE);

        // 弹出的初始位置
        frame.setLocation(200, 200);

        // 设置不可改变大小
        frame.setResizable(false);

        // 设置可见性
        frame.setVisible(true);

    }
}
public class Demo2 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // 展示多个窗口
        MyFrame myFrame1 = new MyFrame(100, 100, 200, 200, Color.CYAN);
        MyFrame myFrame2 = new MyFrame(300, 100, 200, 200, Color.YELLOW);
        MyFrame myFrame3 = new MyFrame(100, 300, 200, 200, Color.RED);
        MyFrame myFrame4 = new MyFrame(300, 300, 200, 200, Color.PINK);
    }
}

class MyFrame extends Frame {
    static int id = 0;  // 可能存在多个窗口,需要一个计数器

    public MyFrame(int x, int y, int w, int h, Color color) {
        super("MyFrame" + (++id));
        // 设置窗口位置及大小
        setBounds(x, y, w, h);
        setBackground(color);
        setVisible(true);
    }
}

2.2. Panel

Panel可以内嵌,不可单独存在,在容器里面。需要放在Frame上。

布局嵌套时,需要使用面板来设置布局。

解决了关闭事件。

public class Demo3 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Frame frame = new Frame();
        // 布局的概念
        Panel panel = new Panel();

        // 设置布局
        frame.setLayout(null);

        frame.setBounds(300, 300, 500, 500);
        frame.setBackground(new Color(44, 166, 44));

        // panel设置坐标,相对于frame
        panel.setBounds(50,50,400,400);
        panel.setBackground(new Color(80, 93, 105));

        // frame添加panel
        frame.add(panel);

        frame.setVisible(true);

        // 监听事件 监听窗口关闭事件
        // 适配器模式
        frame.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            // 窗口点击关闭的时候需要做的事情
            @Override
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                // 结束程序
                System.exit(0);
            }
        });
    }
}

2.3. 布局管理器

流式布局FlowLayout

public class TestFlowLayout {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Frame frame = new Frame();

        // 按钮
        Button button1 = new Button("button1");
        Button button2 = new Button("button2");
        Button button3 = new Button("button3");

        // 设置为流式布局 从左到右 从上到下
        // 默认居中分布 此处传参更改为居左
        frame.setLayout(new FlowLayout(FlowLayout.LEFT));

        frame.setSize(200, 200);

        frame.add(button1);
        frame.add(button2);
        frame.add(button3);

        frame.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                System.exit(0);
            }
        });

        frame.setVisible(true);
    }
}
image-20210807174828788
Image

东南西北中BorderLayout

image-20210807174941922
Image
public class TestBorderLayout {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Frame frame = new Frame("TestBorderLayout");

        frame.setSize(200, 200);

        Button east = new Button("East");
        Button west = new Button("West");
        Button south = new Button("South");
        Button north = new Button("North");
        Button center = new Button("Center");

        // 设置布局
        frame.setLayout(new BorderLayout());

        // 添加组件
        frame.add(east, BorderLayout.EAST);
        frame.add(west, BorderLayout.WEST);
        frame.add(south, BorderLayout.SOUTH);
        frame.add(north, BorderLayout.NORTH);
        frame.add(center, BorderLayout.CENTER);

        frame.setVisible(true);

        frame.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                System.exit(0);
            }
        });

    }
}
image-20210807175912306
Image

网格布局GridLayout

public class TestGridLayout {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Frame frame = new Frame("TestGridLayout");

        Button btn1 = new Button("btn1");
        Button btn2 = new Button("btn2");
        Button btn3 = new Button("btn3");
        Button btn4 = new Button("btn4");
        Button btn5 = new Button("btn5");
        Button btn6 = new Button("btn6");

        // 行数 列数 垂直间隔 水平间隔
        frame.setLayout(new GridLayout(3, 2, 0, 0));

        frame.add(btn1);
        frame.add(btn2);
        frame.add(btn3);
        frame.add(btn4);
        frame.add(btn5);
        frame.add(btn6);

        // Java函数,自动选择最优秀的位置
        frame.pack();
        frame.setVisible(true);
    }
}
image-20210807180633712
Image

2.4. 练习

public class TestLayout {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Frame frame = new Frame("My Layout");
        frame.setLayout(new GridLayout(2, 1));

        // 上
        Panel panel1 = new Panel(new BorderLayout());
        panel1.add(new Button("button"), BorderLayout.WEST);
        panel1.add(new Button("button"), BorderLayout.EAST);

        // 上中
        Panel panel3 = new Panel(new GridLayout(2, 1));
        panel3.add(new Button("button"));
        panel3.add(new Button("button"));
        panel1.add(panel3, BorderLayout.CENTER);

        // 下
        Panel panel2 = new Panel(new BorderLayout());
        panel2.add(new Button("button"), BorderLayout.WEST);
        panel2.add(new Button("button"), BorderLayout.EAST);

        // 下中
        Panel panel4 = new Panel(new GridLayout(2, 2));
        panel4.add(new Button("button"));
        panel4.add(new Button("button"));
        panel4.add(new Button("button"));
        panel4.add(new Button("button"));
        panel2.add(panel4, BorderLayout.CENTER);

        frame.add(panel1);
        frame.add(panel2);

        frame.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                System.exit(0);
            }
        });
        frame.setSize(400, 400);
        frame.setVisible(true);
    }
}
image-20210807184546306
Image

2.5. 总结

  1. Frame是一个顶级窗口。
  2. Panel无法单独显示,必须添加到某个容器中。
  3. 布局管理器
    1. 流式
    2. 东西南北中
    3. 网格
  4. 大小,定位,背景,颜色,可见性。
  5. 关闭窗口。

3. 事件监听

public class Demo4 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Frame frame = new Frame();

        // 按下按钮,触发一些事件
        Button button = new Button("button");

        // 因为addActionListener需要一个ActionListener所以需要构建一个ActionListener
        button.addActionListener(new MyListener());

        frame.add(button, BorderLayout.CENTER);

        windowClose(frame);

        frame.pack();
        frame.setVisible(true);

    }


    // 关闭窗体事件
    private static void windowClose(Frame frame){
        frame.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                System.exit(0);
            }
        });
    }
}

class MyListener implements ActionListener{

    @Override
    public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
        System.out.println("clicked");
    }
}

多个按钮共享一个事件

public class Demo5 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {

        // 两个按钮,实现同一个监听
        Frame frame = new Frame("开始-停止");

        Button btn1 = new Button("start");
        // 可以显式定义出发会返回的命令。如果不显示定义则会走默认的值。
        // 可以多个按钮只写一个监听类
        btn1.setActionCommand("start");

        Button btn2 = new Button("stop");
        btn2.setActionCommand("stop");

        MyMonitor myMonitor = new MyMonitor();
        btn1.addActionListener(myMonitor);
        btn2.addActionListener(myMonitor);

        frame.add(btn1, BorderLayout.NORTH);
        frame.add(btn2, BorderLayout.SOUTH);

        frame.pack();
        windowClose(frame);
        frame.setVisible(true);


    }

    private static void windowClose(Frame frame){
        frame.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                System.exit(0);
            }
        });
    }
}

class MyMonitor implements ActionListener{
    @Override
    public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
        System.out.println("按钮被点击了:" + e.getActionCommand());
//        if (e.getActionCommand().equals("start")) {
//
//        }


    }
}

4. 输入框TextField监听

public class Demo6 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // 启动
        new MyFrame1();

    }
}

class MyFrame1 extends Frame {
    public MyFrame1() {
        TextField textField = new TextField();
        add(textField);

        // 监听这个文本框输入的文字
        // 按下enter就会触发这个输入框的事件
        MyActionListener myActionListener = new MyActionListener();
        textField.addActionListener(myActionListener);

        // 设置替换编码
        textField.setEchoChar('*');

        pack();
        setVisible(true);
    }

}

class MyActionListener implements ActionListener {

    @Override
    public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
        // 获得一个资源 返回一个对象 监听了谁就是谁
        TextField source = (TextField) e.getSource();
        // 获得输入框中的文本
        System.out.println(source.getText());
        // 清空文本
        source.setText("");
    }
}

5. 简易计算器,组合+内部类回顾复习

oop原则:组合大于继承,优先使用组合

// A继承B的全部特性
class A extends B{

}

// 组合
class A {
  public B b;
}
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
import java.awt.event.ActionListener;
import java.awt.event.WindowAdapter;
import java.awt.event.WindowEvent;

/**
 * 简易计算器
 *
 * @author admin
 * @date 2021/8/7 8:30 下午
 */
public class Calc {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new Calculator();
    }
}

// 计算器类
class Calculator extends Frame {
    public Calculator() {
        this.setTitle("Calculator");
        // 3个文本框
        // 最大可写10个字符
        TextField num1 = new TextField(10);
        TextField num2 = new TextField(10);
        TextField num3 = new TextField(20);

        // 1个按钮
        Button button = new Button("=");
        MyCalculatorListener myCalculatorListener = new MyCalculatorListener(num1, num2, num3);
        button.addActionListener(myCalculatorListener);

        // 1个标签
        Label label = new Label("+");

        // 布局
        setLayout(new FlowLayout());

        add(num1);
        add(label);
        add(num2);
        add(button);
        add(num3);

        pack();
        setVisible(true);

        closeWindow(this);
    }

    private void closeWindow(Calculator calculator) {
        addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                System.exit(0);
            }
        });
    }

}

// 监听器类
class MyCalculatorListener implements ActionListener {

    private TextField num1;
    private TextField num2;
    private TextField num3;

    // 获取三个变量
    public MyCalculatorListener(TextField num1, TextField num2, TextField num3) {
        this.num1 = num1;
        this.num2 = num2;
        this.num3 = num3;
    }

    @Override
    public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
        // 获得两个加数
        int a = Integer.parseInt(num1.getText());
        int b = Integer.parseInt(num2.getText());

        // 加法运算后放到第三个框
        num3.setText(Integer.toString(a + b));

        // 清除前两个框
        num1.setText("");
        num2.setText("");
    }
}

完全改造为面向对象写法,使用了组合

/**
 * 简易计算器
 *
 * @author admin
 * @date 2021/8/7 8:30 下午
 */
public class Calc {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new Calculator().load();
    }
}

// 计算器类
class Calculator extends Frame {

    private TextField num2;
    private TextField num3;
    private Button button;
    private Label label;
    private TextField num1;

    public TextField getNum1() {
        return num1;
    }

    public void setNum1(TextField num1) {
        this.num1 = num1;
    }

    public TextField getNum2() {
        return num2;
    }

    public void setNum2(TextField num2) {
        this.num2 = num2;
    }

    public TextField getNum3() {
        return num3;
    }

    public void setNum3(TextField num3) {
        this.num3 = num3;
    }

    public Button getButton() {
        return button;
    }

    public void setButton(Button button) {
        this.button = button;
    }

    public Label getLabel() {
        return label;
    }

    public void setLabel(Label label) {
        this.label = label;
    }

    public void load() {
        this.setTitle("Calculator");
        num1 = new TextField(10);
        num2 = new TextField(10);
        num3 = new TextField(20);
        button = new Button("=");
        label = new Label("+");

        MyCalculatorListener myCalculatorListener = new MyCalculatorListener(this);
        button.addActionListener(myCalculatorListener);

        // 布局
        setLayout(new FlowLayout());
        add(num1);
        add(label);
        add(num2);
        add(button);
        add(num3);
        pack();
        setVisible(true);

        closeWindow(this);
    }

    private void closeWindow(Calculator calculator) {
        addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                System.exit(0);
            }
        });
    }
}

// 监听器类
class MyCalculatorListener implements ActionListener {

    Calculator calculator = null;

    public MyCalculatorListener(Calculator calculator) {
        this.calculator = calculator;
    }

    @Override
    public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
        // 获得两个加数
        int num1 = Integer.parseInt(calculator.getNum1().getText());
        int num2 = Integer.parseInt(calculator.getNum2().getText());

        // 加法运算后放到第三个框
        calculator.getNum3().setText(Integer.toString(num1 + num2));

        // 清除前两个框
        calculator.getNum1().setText("");
        calculator.getNum2().setText("");

    }
}

内部类

  • 更好的包装。
  • 最大的好处,就是可以畅通无阻的访问外部类的属性和方法。
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
import java.awt.event.ActionListener;
import java.awt.event.WindowAdapter;
import java.awt.event.WindowEvent;

/**
 * 简易计算器
 *
 * @author admin
 * @date 2021/8/7 8:30 下午
 */
public class Calc {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new Calculator().load();
    }
}

// 计算器类
class Calculator extends Frame {

    private TextField num1;
    private TextField num2;
    private TextField num3;
    private Button button;
    private Label label;

    public TextField getNum1() {
        return num1;
    }

    public void setNum1(TextField num1) {
        this.num1 = num1;
    }

    public TextField getNum2() {
        return num2;
    }

    public void setNum2(TextField num2) {
        this.num2 = num2;
    }

    public TextField getNum3() {
        return num3;
    }

    public void setNum3(TextField num3) {
        this.num3 = num3;
    }

    public Button getButton() {
        return button;
    }

    public void setButton(Button button) {
        this.button = button;
    }

    public Label getLabel() {
        return label;
    }

    public void setLabel(Label label) {
        this.label = label;
    }

    public void load() {
        this.setTitle("Calculator");
        num1 = new TextField(10);
        num2 = new TextField(10);
        num3 = new TextField(20);
        button = new Button("=");
        label = new Label("+");

        MyCalculatorListener myCalculatorListener = new MyCalculatorListener();
        button.addActionListener(myCalculatorListener);

        // 布局
        setLayout(new FlowLayout());
        add(num1);
        add(label);
        add(num2);
        add(button);
        add(num3);
        pack();
        setVisible(true);

        closeWindow(this);
    }

    private void closeWindow(Calculator calculator) {
        addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                System.exit(0);
            }
        });
    }

    // 监听器内部类
    private class MyCalculatorListener implements ActionListener {

        @Override
        public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
            // 获得两个加数
            int a = Integer.parseInt(num1.getText());
            int b = Integer.parseInt(num2.getText());

            // 加法运算后放到第三个框
            num3.setText(Integer.toString(a + b));

            // 清除前两个框
            num1.setText("");
            num2.setText("");

        }
    }

}
image-20210807235759962
Image

6. 画笔

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.WindowAdapter;
import java.awt.event.WindowEvent;

/**
 * @author admin
 * @date 2021/8/7 11:45 下午
 */
public class Demo7 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new MyPaint().loadFrame();
    }
}

class MyPaint extends Frame {

    public void loadFrame() {
        setBounds(200, 200, 600, 500);
        setVisible(true);

        windowClose(this);
    }

    private void windowClose(MyPaint myPaint) {
        myPaint.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                System.exit(0);
            }
        });
    }


    @Override
    public void paint(Graphics g) {
        // super.print(g);
        // 画笔需要有颜色,可以画画
        g.setColor(Color.CYAN);
        g.drawOval(100, 100, 100, 100);

        g.setColor(Color.GREEN);
        g.fillRect(200, 200, 100, 100);

        // 养成习惯 画笔用完要还原到最初的颜色
        g.setColor(null);
    }
}

画笔写字

g.setColor(Color.BLACK);
g.setFont(new Font("微软雅黑", Font.BOLD, 40));
g.drawString("按下空格开始游戏", 300, 300);

7. 监听

7.1. 鼠标监听

目的:实现鼠标点击

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.MouseAdapter;
import java.awt.event.MouseEvent;
import java.awt.event.WindowAdapter;
import java.awt.event.WindowEvent;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Iterator;

/**
 * @author admin
 * @date 2021/8/8 12:06 上午
 */
public class TestMouseListener {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new MyFrame2("画图");
    }
}

class MyFrame2 extends Frame {
    // 画画需要画笔 需要监听鼠标当前的位置
    // 需要集合来存储这个点
    private ArrayList<Point> points;

    public MyFrame2(String title){
        super(title);
        setBounds(200, 200, 400, 300);
        setVisible(true);

        // 存放鼠标点击的点
        points = new ArrayList<>();

        // 鼠标监听器 针对这个窗口
        this.addMouseListener(new MyMouseListener());

        closeWindow(this);
    }

    private void closeWindow(MyFrame2 myFrame2) {
        myFrame2.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                System.exit(0);
            }
        });
    }

    @Override
    public void paint(Graphics g) {
//        super.paint(g);
        // 画画 需要监听鼠标的事件
        Iterator iterator = points.iterator();
        while (iterator.hasNext()){
            Point point = (Point) iterator.next();
            g.setColor(Color.CYAN);
            g.fillOval(point.x, point.y, 10, 10);
        }
    }

    public void addPaint(Point point){
        points.add(point);
    }

    private class MyMouseListener extends MouseAdapter{
        // 鼠标按下,弹起,按住不放

        @Override
        public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) {
//            super.mousePressed(e);
            MyFrame2 frame = (MyFrame2) e.getSource();

            // 这里点击的时候,就会在界面上产生一个点
            frame.addPaint(new Point(e.getX(), e.getY()));

            // 每次点击鼠标都需要重新画一次
            frame.repaint();
        }
    }
}

7.2. 窗口监听

public class Demo8 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new WindowFrame();
    }
}

class WindowFrame extends Frame {
    public WindowFrame() {
        setBounds(100, 100, 200, 200);
        setBackground(Color.BLUE);

        // 匿名内部类
        addWindowListener(
                new WindowAdapter() {
                    @Override
                    public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                        System.out.println("windowClosing");
                        System.exit(0);
                    }

                    @Override
                    public void windowActivated(WindowEvent e) {
                        System.out.println("windowActivated");
                    }
                }
        );

        setVisible(true);
    }

}

7.3. 键盘监听

public class Demo9 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new KeyFrame();
    }

}

class KeyFrame extends Frame {
    public KeyFrame() {
        super();
        setBounds(100, 100, 200, 200);
        setVisible(true);

        addKeyListener(
                new KeyAdapter() {
                    // 键盘按下
                    @Override
                    public void keyPressed(KeyEvent e) {
                        System.out.println(e.getKeyCode());
                        // 键盘按下的键是哪一个 当前键盘的码
                        if (e.getKeyCode() == KeyEvent.VK_UP) {
                            System.out.println("你按下了上键");
                        }

                        // 根据按下不同的操作,产生不同的结果

                    }
                }
        );
    }
}
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